The new technology of raw material cultivation of greenhouse mushroom

The new technology of raw material cultivation of greenhouse mushroom

First, the morphological characteristics of the fruiting bodies, cap diameter 2 to 15 cm, hemispherical, cover the edge of the volume, and gradually developed after the flat. Stipe peduncle straight, 2 to 13 cm long, 2 to 8 cm in diameter, up and down near the same thick, early solid stipe, hollow later. There are two types of varieties, white and yellow, white can be processed into bottled cans, yellow for fresh food and processed into dry products. Second, biological characteristics 1. Temperature mycelial growth suitable temperature 16 ~ 28 °C, the optimum temperature is about 23 °C, below 4 °C and 34 °C to stop growing, more than 37 °C mycelium died. The fruiting body is formed at a temperature of 4 to 24°C, a suitable temperature for growth of 5 to 16°C, and an optimum temperature of about 13°C. The temperature is too high for the cap to open easily and it easily causes rot. 2. The suitable moisture content in the moisture content is 60% to 70%, and the most suitable is 65%; the germicidal air relative humidity is 60% to 70%. Mushrooms require a suitable relative humidity of 80% to 90%. 3. pH Suitable pH is 6 to 7, and the optimum pH is 6.5. Since the pH of the material after sterilization decreases by about 0.5, the pH of the raw material is adjusted to 7.0. 4. The light mycelium does not need light, the fruit body needs to scatter light, no light can not form the fruit body. The light is too strong, the stipe is too short, and the fibrosis of the stipe is organized. The umbrella is opened early and the stipe becomes brown, which reduces the commodity value. 5. Air F. velutipes is a carbon dioxide resistant type, such as the supply of fresh and sufficient oxygen, good development of mycelium and fruit bodies; when the concentration of carbon dioxide exceeds 1%, the stipe is slender and the tip mushroom appears; when the concentration of carbon dioxide reaches 5%, the fruit body is Can not be formed. 6. Nutrition F. velutipes wood rot consumption, the optimum carbon to nitrogen ratio is 20:1. Third, the strains production 1. The mother of the optimum medium formula: 1 water 1000 ml, potato (peeled) 200 grams, 20 grams of sucrose, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.6 grams, 0.5 grams of magnesium sulfate, agar amount; 2 water 1000 ml, glucose 30 g, peptone 2 g, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.6 g, magnesium sulfate 0.5 g, 0.1 g vitamin B1, agar 20 g; 3 water 1000 ml, rice straw (boiled juice) 200 g, sucrose 3 g, ammonium sulfate 3 grams, 20 grams of agar. 2. The most suitable species of the original species and cultivar: 1 broad-leaved wood chips 73%, organic matter (wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour or bean cake powder) 25%, gypsum 1%, sucrose 1%; 2 cottonseed husk 88%, wheat bran 10%, sucrose 1%, gypsum 1%; 3 grains (or corn kernels) 99%, gypsum 1%. Dry material: water = 10:12~13. The mother species is full of 7 to 10 days, and the female parent and cultivar grow over 30 days. Seed production according to normal operation. IV. Cultivation 1. Cultivation formula 1 cottonseed 85%, wheat bran 13%, gypsum 1%, calcium carbonate 1%. 2 Sawdust 77%, wheat bran (or corn flour, rice bran, bean cake flour) 20%, sucrose 1%, gypsum 1%, calcium carbonate 1%. 2.Preparation of fermentation materials 1 Mixing materials such as cottonseed husks, organic materials, sawdust, and insoluble materials such as gypsum and calcium carbonate are mixed evenly when dry, and water-soluble excipients such as sucrose are dissolved in water and then spilled. Splash water evenly. 2 Heap piles are 1 to 1.5 meters wide, 1.2 meters high, depending on the length of the material and the venue. The width of the pile up and down no more than 20 cm. Grass cover on the surface, insulation and moisturizing. 3 Turn the stack and turn it 2 or 3 times, starting from the surface at 20 centimeters from the surface, and start the timer at the temperature of 60°C for 48 hours, then turn over. Turn over the principle: turn it up and turn it inside out. After the material temperature reaches 60°C, it is maintained for 48 hours. It is better to turn it once more. 4 Standards for high-quality materials When the material is covered with white feather-like hyphae, and there is a special bread flavor is a high-quality material, can not have a musty, odor. The material is sprayed with 0.1% to 0.2% carbendazim after fermentation. 3. The smoked shed is smoked 3 to 4 days before feeding: Formaldehyde 5 to 8 ml/cubic meter, sulfur 15 g/cubic meter or aerosol 3 to 4 g/cubic meter; smoke once after feeding, and timely ventilation . 4. Seed bed width 80 to 100 cm, material thickness 15 to 17 cm. The insecticide and bactericide were sprayed on the ground surface before sowing. The material was spread and compacted. The strain was 2 layers, the middle layer and the uppermost layer. The amount of bacteria used was 10% to 15% of the dry material. 2/5, 3/5 on the surface and around. After sowing, sprinkle a thin layer of material on the surface, then cover it with a straw, apply carbendazim, and cover with a plastic film. 5. The temperature of bacteria administration is controlled at about 23°C, and the relative humidity of air is controlled at 60% to 70%. The air in the shed is often ventilated. At the same time, the film on the surface of the material is shaken once every morning and evening for ventilation. The mycelium is about 30 days. Overgrown, gray to achieve physical maturity. 6. Neat bud budding is the key to high yield and quality. First of all, the temperature should be controlled at about 13°C. It is difficult to produce mushrooms below 8°C, and fruit bodies above 18°C ​​are sparse. The humidity should be controlled at 90%. At the same time, the membrane should be removed and ventilated every day for 10 minutes to turn the hyphae from gray to white, and brown drips appear, which can lead to budding. 7. Step-by-step oxytocin production measures In order to eliminate the tip of E. velutipes, to promote the potential of lateral buds on stalks to regenerate a large number of saplings, in order to obtain more fruit bodies and increase production, the following measures can be taken: 1 Ventilation, drying and wilting method (ie, regeneration method), when the mushroom grows to 2 to 3 cm, the film is removed, ventilated and dried to make the mushroom cover wilting, and the mushroom shank still has a certain hardness, and then the cover film is started and supported, and then appropriate temperature is applied. Wet, dense buds appear in about 4 days. 2 When the mushroom grows to about 3 centimeters, the mushroom tip and the cap of the mushroom are cut off, the pith is pressed on the bed of the bacteria, and the appropriate temperature and humidity are given, and the concentration of carbon dioxide is increased. Intensive buds appear in about 4 days. 8. Harvesting criteria for harvesting fruiting bodies: The handle length is 10 to 15 centimeters when exported, and the handle length is 25 centimeters for domestic sales. The umbrella cap does not open. While harvesting, hold the bacterium bed in one hand and gently pull out the mushroom body in the other hand. Then pick the mushroom, cover with a thin film, etc. After the mycelium recovers, the second mushroom can be produced. Fifth, pay attention to the problem 1. Causes of anomalies 1 Fungal adhesions, mushroom, stacked mushrooms, etc. are due to insect pests should be strengthened pest control. 2 Dark spots and soft rot are caused by mold. 3 Rust and brown rot are caused by bacteria. 4 arbors (long stems only, no caps or very small caps): Caused by high concentrations of carbon dioxide or excessive humidity. 5 The culture material was wet and rot, and the color was dark brown, which was caused by nematodes. 6 Milky white, off-white, pale yellow, or pink mucilage occurs on the surface of the culture, caused by myxobacteria. 2. Oxygen production measures are the key to increase production, but this measure is limited to the first tidal mushroom, and the second tide and the third tidal mushroom are forbidden. 3. The fermentation material must meet the maturity standards. This measure is the key to successful cultivation. 4. To maintain the regular hygiene in the shed, timely clean the mushrooms, mushrooms, and often spray fungicide and insecticides, especially fungicides.

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