Experience in Soil Testing and Formula Fertilization in Sichuan Province

Experience in Soil Testing and Formula Fertilization in Sichuan Province

Experience of Soil Testing and Formula Fertilization in Sichuan Province From April 17 to 20, the Agriculture Department of the Ministry of Finance and the Finance Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Crop Management Division jointly conducted field surveys on soil testing and fertilizer application in Sichuan Province. Surveys showed that: Soil formula fertilization is an effective way to ease the shortage of fertilizer supply and demand in China. It can not only promote the increase of crop yields, agricultural efficiency, and farmers' income, but also promote the sustainable development of agriculture in our country. The Sichuan experience is: First, to strengthen agricultural technicians and The close integration of the market; the second is simple technology, easy to accept farmers. I. Basic situation Since 2001, Sichuan and Sanyue County have been focused on soil testing and formulating fertilization, and integrated services such as “soil testing, testing, formulating, production, fertilizer supply, and technical guidance” have been applied to complex fertilizer application. Simplification of technology, direct supply of physical and chemical products to farmers, increased the in-place rate of soil testing and fertilization techniques, and significant fertilizer efficiency. (I) Reduce the amount of fertilizer used and reduce production costs. Before the implementation of the project, conventional fertilization of rice is generally over 110 kg per acre. After soil testing, scientifically formulated fertilization requires only about 80 kg (approximately 16 kg) per acre, saving 30 kg of fertilizer per acre, and reducing costs by 10-25. yuan. After the implementation of soil testing and formula fertilization, the utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in the current season is 10-15 percentage points higher than that of conventional fertilization, which can reach 40-45 % (the developed countries are generally around 60 %). (II) Obvious effect of increasing production and income. Soil testing and formulating fertilization combines the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and reasonable coordination of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which can supplement targeted and trace elements in a targeted manner, which is conducive to the increase of crop yield. According to a follow-up survey conducted by the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agricultural Research, soil fertigation and fertilizer application averaged 8.2% less fertilization than conventionally applied grain crops; oil crops, vegetables, cotton and other cash crops increased production by an average of 14.6%. The yield of rapeseed in Jianping Town of Santai County increased from 149 kilograms previously to 171.6 kilograms, an increase of 15.2%; rice increased from 500.9 kilograms to 543.3 kilograms, an increase of 8.5%. (3) Prevent non-point source pollution of chemical fertilizers and improve the sustainable development of land. The utilization rate of chemical fertilizers in China is less than 30%, and a large amount of nutrients are evaporated, infiltrated into the ground, or flow into rivers, resulting in eutrophication of a large number of rivers and lakes. At the same time, a large amount of fertilization results in the acidification of soil and the decline of soil quality. To maintain production, more fertilizer must be applied, creating a vicious cycle. The promotion of soil testing and formulating fertilization can prevent non-point source pollution from the source, formulate fertilization by soil testing and implement lack of crops and fill crops, conduct soil testing and formula fertilization in 2-3 consecutive seasons, significantly improve physical and chemical properties of soil, and curb the trend of further deterioration. (4) Reducing crop diseases and improving the quality of agricultural products. Studies have shown that more than 90% of crop diseases are caused by imbalance of nutrients, and the overall level of agricultural products is not high and there is a large relationship between unreasonable fertilization. The large amount of fertilizer, especially the partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, aggravated the occurrence of diseases. The content of nitrate in vegetables was high, and some quality indicators of fruits were reduced. After the implementation of soil testing and formula fertilization, crop diseases can be reduced, the use of pesticides can be greatly reduced, and the crops can grow robustly and resist disease. , enhanced resistance. This will not only save the cost of pesticide application, but also reduce pesticide pollution and improve and improve the quality of agricultural products. Second, the main experience and practice of soil testing and formula fertilization Soil testing and formulating fertilization is based on soil testing and testing, according to the soil fertilizer performance, crop fertilizer requirements and fertilizer effects, the development of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and suitable for medium and micro-fertilizer Dosage formulas guide farmers to determine practical techniques for fertilization and application methods. The specific approach is: (a) Scientific and technical personnel test soil formula. One is to conduct field trials of fertilizer efficiency by soil type. The second is to take the soil test. Usually 50 to 100 acres take a sample. The third is to formulate formulas. Based on the soil nutrient properties, fertilizer effects, and fertilizer requirements of crops, based on the application of a certain amount of organic fertilizer, the appropriate amount of NPK fertilizer is determined according to the target yield, and trace element fertilizers are targetedly formulated. And supporting cultivation techniques. The fourth is to pass the pilot test formula and choose the best solution for production. (II) Enterprise processing and production. After formulation is completed, directional processing production will be conducted by the Soil Testing and Fertilizer Center. Targeted sales at an approved uniform price. (III) Marketized sales. After the formula fertilizer is produced, the soil testing and fertilizer distribution center implements the marketized fertilizer supply (peasants voluntarily purchase) through the township (town) and village agricultural technology promotion systems. (d) Socialized technical services. Sanhe County's promotion network expanded from 16 in 1998 to 199. It spreads across towns, townships, villages and communities throughout the county. It also affected the surrounding neighboring counties and built a service team that has begun to take shape. Through many years of practice, they have explored the “four ones” model: A small market: According to the type of soil, each extension promoter is assigned a promotional area, which can be a town, a township, or a village. Several agencies, based on the promoters' ability to promote, the goal is to achieve a comprehensive popular soil testing and fertilizer application techniques, and to promote the promoters to develop indicators to stimulate their rapid development. One-stop management: direct management of each outlet, reducing the number of intermediate links, avoiding the increase in the price of formula fertilizer in the circulation, allowing farmers to get more benefits, which is conducive to the promotion of soil testing and fertilizer application. Integrated services: The organizer will hold two summing-up training sessions each year to provide technical training for the promoters in the face of problems in production, and to train the promoters in service concepts and service methods in response to the problems in the promotion; There is a special technical consultation telephone. If the answer on the telephone is not clear, the technical personnel must arrive at the scene within three days according to the regulations. Specialized time - to solve production problems. At the same time, we insist on conducting a return visit survey every year, understand the situation of fertilization in the field, solve production problems, and provide technical guidance. A bag of fertilizer: Although soil testing and formula fertilization have high technical content and complicated procedures, these complex procedures are all completed by technicians. The final result is a “bag of fertilizer” (farmers are commonly called “fool fertilizers”), which are based on scientific and technical personnel. Different soil ingredients, different crop varieties are prepared in acres of 30-50 kg, a nutritious range of "a bag of fertilizer." Farmers only need to "symptom" in the sowing of "one bag of fertilizer" per acre on the line. Third, gains and inspiration (I) To promote soil testing and formula fertilization technology must take the "measurement, distribution, production, supply, application" integrated technical services. Soil testing and formula fertilization is the conventional application of high-efficiency and low-efficiency fertilizers to the scientific fertilization of indigenous crops. Practice has proved that in some places, agricultural technicians dictate and formulate, and farmers use their own method to purchase fertilizer. There are certain defects in the actual operation. The main reason is that it is difficult for the farmers to grasp the formula, and they are not well-matched and poorly equipped. Therefore, the promotion of soil testing and formula fertilization technology can only take the road of “inspection, distribution, production, supply, application” integrated technical services. (2) The promotion of soil testing and formula fertilization must follow the road of marketization. To carry out soil testing and fertilizer application technology to promote integrated services must be market-oriented, but it must be: First, there must be agricultural technology departments to participate as their technical support. Soil and fertilizer promotion and test personnel in Mianyang and Santai County of Sichuan Province took part in the form of technology shares and participated in the activities of fertilizer production enterprises. Second, they were able to establish experimental research bases to conduct formulation research screening. Santai County established three different soil types of fertilizer testing bases. Through experiments and comparisons, various formulas for more than 10 crops such as rice, wheat, and rapeseed were screened, 18 formulas for different regions of the same crop were designed, and 3 were willing to invest in soil testing, formula research, publicity and training, etc. Non-profit technical service; Santai County Taiwo Agricultural Science and Technology Co., Ltd. takes 30 yuan out of the sales revenue per ton of fertiliser as the soil testing formulation fee, and provides free service for the farmers' formula. (3) The state supports the promotion of soil testing and formulating fertilization techniques more appropriately. To implement soil testing, fertilizer application and integration services, we must carry out services such as soil testing, experimentation, formulation screening, demonstration and demonstration, and technical training publicity. These tasks require partial investment. Without national financial support, it is difficult to start in some places. And development.

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