Orchard autumn management technical points

Orchard autumn management technical points

In the autumn, apple-dominated fruit trees and late maturing varieties gradually ripen. It is also a critical period for the deep differentiation of flower buds and the storage of organic nutrients. At the same time, the fruit trees are also faced with natural disasters such as hail and rain and invasion of rot bacteria.

1. Disasters such as hailstorm and Qiulin have more precipitation in autumn, the air temperature is higher and unstable, and there is more convective weather and hail can easily occur. All localities should actively cooperate with the meteorological and plant protection departments to take effective countermeasures, carry out defenses, and minimize disaster losses. Before the hailstorm, it is necessary to organize technical personnel to go deep into the fruit area in time to do a good job of propaganda in conjunction with flood prevention. After the hailfall, we must promptly check disaster reports, formulate disaster relief programs, and train and guide fruit growers to quickly adopt “one spray, two clear gardens, three spray fertilizers” and other effective. Measures to carry out production self-help.

2. Diseases and pests integrated control includes apple tree rot disease, brown spot disease and anthracnose; pear stem rot, black spot disease and kiwifruit canker disease are the main control objects. Prevention and control measures: (1) trunks and branches of mature fruit trees After scraping the skin, apply 4% agricultural anti-120 water agent or 5% anti-bacterial agent 50 times liquid, eradicate rot, dry rot and infect pathogens. (2) Before the rainy season or the occurrence of Qiu Lin, it is necessary to select high-efficiency sucking fungicides according to the fruit ripening period. (3) In the middle and late August of the same period, combining field management such as autumn cutting, bag removal, leaf picking, fruit harvesting, and harvesting, cut off the shoots and shoots, remove pests and leaves, scrape cracks, and shoots and shoots. Leaf fruit and rocker were burned. (4) Promote the use of hanging sweet and sour liquids or frequency-vibration insecticidal lamps to trap and kill pests. (5) Bound insect traps or sticky tapes on the upper part of the trunk to trap insects.

3. The autumn pruning with the emphasis on “Strong Pulling Branches” focuses on the goal of reducing the density and improving the nutrient distribution and ventilation and light transmission conditions of the tree. (1) In the middle and late August of the year, the main branch, the major auxiliary branch and the large branch of the 3-6-year-old tree will adopt the “one activity, two depressing, three piling, and four fixed” methods to pull the branch open angle. (2) For the 1-2 year old vegetative shoots with vigorous growth on both sides of the main branch and on the back, the "E" type opener or the "one rubbing, two rubbing, and three fixed" methods can be used to train the sticks. To ease, do not need to cultivate branches to be removed. (3) Grasp the excessive shoots on the useless branches around the inner wall, the slashing mouths, the upright branches on the back, and the extended shoots on the backbone extensions. Leave one for the overwhelming growth and two fruiting branches. Sparse stay in the middle.

Fourth, fruit management (1) check bagging fruit. Should pay attention to squeeze the bag mouth, to prevent fruit rust caused by rain into the bag; expansion of the bottom of the bag ventilation hole, in order to facilitate the air permeability, prevent sunburn and black spot disease. (2) timely removal of bags. According to the market and storage requirements, Red Fuji and Qin Guan varieties are recommended to remove the outer bag before the National Day and remove the inner bag 5-6 days apart. (3) timely pick leaves and fruit. For uncropped red mid-maturing varieties, 10-15 days before harvesting, 20-30 days before the late-maturing varieties were harvested, and before the bagged fruit was removed from the inner bag, the "pick-up leaves" and the distances from the fruits were removed. 5 cm range of "shading leaves." When the positive side of the fruit is sufficiently colored to meet the requirements of the commodity standards, the “shading leaf” that is 20 cm away from the fruit is removed, and the fruit is turned to the positive side by supporting the fruit with a hand to make it fully colored. (4) Pay attention to spraying leaf fertilizer. During fruit ripening stage, potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed on the leaves twice, separated by about 10 days. The bagged fruit was also sprayed with water-soluble Merrill Lynch calcium to promote fruit coloration, increase hardness, and increase sugar content. (5) Spray humidification. The fruit coloring period can be sprayed several times in the afternoon, cooling and humidifying to facilitate coloring. (6) Shop reflective film. The conditional orchard has a strip of silver reflective tape under the canopy immediately after the removal of the inner bag to enhance light and promote coloration. (7) Harvest in batches at appropriate intervals. According to the fruit growth period and maturity of each variety, the appropriate picking period was determined, and appropriate harvesting was carried out in batches to ensure fruit quality.

Fifth, do a good job "skillful fertilization" as the focus of soil management (1) do a good job security. In order to ensure the fruit's demand for water expansion, various localities must actively adopt various effective measures to protect it. (2) Mature soil. It is necessary to grasp the favorable timing of labor concentration around the National Day holiday, with proper soil temperature, good lyricism, organic fertilizer (materials), and deep plowing of mature soil. The young garden adopts the method of ring groove or band groove to excavate a ditch 50 centimeters wide and 50-70 centimeters deep. The bottom of the ditch is layered with straws, leaves, weeds and other organic matter, and sprinkled with a little manure; more than 10 years old. The mature gardens should also be planned to take rows or between plants to deepen about 50 centimeters each year, ripen the soil and renew the root system. (3) Pay attention to "basal fertilizer" and apply deep fat to the base fertilizer. Base fertilizer standards: saplings are calculated according to the age of the trees. Each plant needs to apply 15-25 kg of high-quality manure, plus 0.5-1 kg of superphosphate; the result tree needs 1.5 kg of high-quality manure and 0.07 kg of superphosphate to produce 1 kg of fruit. Add 0.04 kg of ammonium bicarbonate or 0.1 kg of organic compound fertilizer, plus 15 kg of compound fertilizer per 667 square meters.

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