Meat tenderizing method and its mechanism

Meat tenderizing method and its mechanism

Tenderness is one of the main edible qualities of meat. It is the most commonly used index for judging the quality of meat, it is the decisive factor and the important sensory characteristics that dominate the meat quality. The tenderness of meat is a comprehensive feeling and is myofibrils. The physical and biochemical state of proteins and connective tissue proteins (collagen). People use a lot of methods in order to improve the tenderness of meat. I will briefly describe the method and mechanism of meat tenderization.

1 Physical tenderization

1.1 Mechanical tenderization

In meat processing, meat tenderizers and tumbling processes are commonly used. The tenderizer presses the body through many mechanically sharp blades or sharp needles. Due to the mechanical force, muscle fiber cells and intermuscular connective tissue are cut and broken, the normal structure of the meat is destroyed, and the performance of the muscle tissue is changed. Enhance the surface area of ​​meat, increase the adhesiveness of meat, and increase the water holding capacity of meat to achieve the purpose of tenderization. Tumbling is an important step in the processing of Western-style hams. It uses tumbling kneading machines to knead meat pieces that have been marinated to change muscle tissue. One of the tumbling kneading processes is to accelerate the dispersion and even distribution of salt, and secondly to soak the lysed protein, and the third is to break the muscle fiber and make it tender. Rolling conditions are usually under 4 ~ 5 °C conditions, forward 15min - reverse 15min - intermittent 30min, rolling knead 18 ~ 24h. The mechanical tenderization technology is mainly used in the high-grade parts of meat with lower quality grades (rib meat and loin meat) and the older parts of high-grade meat (nickel neck meat, beef thigh meat, and scorpion meat). Mechanical tenderization can increase the tenderness of meat by 20% to 50% without increasing cooking losses.

1.2 Electric stimulation tenderization method

The electrical stimulation method involves stimulating electrodes with slaughtered carcasses head-to-tail to stimulate the energy that causes the muscles to contract. The muscle fibers are in a relaxed state and feel tender. Studies have shown that 550-700V, 5A current stimulation is the best treatment, and need to stimulate 17 times, every time 60 ~ 180 s can be all the energy to cause contraction from the muscle depletion.

The electrical stimulation of the body, due to the effect of current, accelerates the rapid degradation of adenosine triphosphate in muscle and the decomposition of glycogen to produce various organic acids, so that the pH value quickly drops to 6.0, and then cold processing of the muscles can prevent meat. The cold shrinks, thereby increasing tenderness. At the same time, due to the degradation of adenosine triphosphate in the meat, and the decomposition of glycogen to produce various flavor substances, the meat can be further improved in meat quality and appearance. Electrical stimulation has the following major advantages: it improves the "formation" of the body's marble pattern, allowing it to classify meat earlier after slaughter; electrical stimulation causes the muscle to secrete autolytic enzymes in advance, which increases meat when the meat is cooled and stored. The tenderness enhances the “curing”; it makes the muscles brighter and tastes more palatable; it increases the retail price of the retail meat. ”

1.3 Natural (low temperature) curing method

The slaughtered fresh meat is fed into a cool room where the temperature is low and the oil is cooled to about 85% of the humidity for a period of time, so that the meat becomes tender and juicy, and the flavor is increased. This method is commonly known as acid-produced and cooked meat processing industry.

There are tissue egg enzymes that break down proteins in the living tissues of livestock. It is present in tiny particles of lysosomes. Under normal living pH conditions, cathepsin is not activated, but after slaughter, muscle tissue due to lack of oxygen supply, glycogen to anaerobic glycolysis to generate lactic acid, combined with fiber cell disintegration, release of calcium ions, activation of adenosine triphosphate, Decomposition of adenosine triphosphate releases phosphorous acid, which together with lactic acid forms an acidic medium in the muscle and lowers the pH; but with the disintegration of various tissues, the released cathepsin breaks muscle protein into small molecules of peptides, amino acids and A small amount of amines cause the pH of the meat to gradually increase, deviate from the isoelectric point of the muscle protein, loosen the structure of the muscle protein, and contribute to the formation of protein hydration ions, resulting in a significant increase in the water holding capacity of the meat [1, 3] , 5].

1.4 High pressure tenderizing method

High pressure technology has been applied and developed in food processing such as conditioning, preservation, and tenderization in recent years. Tests have shown that pressures above 3,000 atmospheres can provide bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects without destroying the characteristics and nutrient content of foods. For rough and hard meat, use vacuum packaging, put in a special container, inject water, increase the pressure to 73 237.68kg/m2, after 2min, remove the water pressure, under the microscope can be seen that the muscle fibers are broken The muscle fibers are fragmented and the flesh is tenderized [9].

2 Chemical tenderization

2.1 Enzyme Tenderization

This method is widely used in the tenderization of beef. The enzymes used are plant proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin), bacterial proteases (alkaline proteases from Bacillus subtilis, neutral proteases, thermostable proteases of Bacillus thermophilus), molds, and lineages. There are several major classes of proteases, of which the tenderizing effect of plant proteases is good. It can decompose collagen and elastin, and can specifically hydrolyze the connective tissue fibers in the muscle, making it an amorphous mass; and bacterial Protease can only digest the inner membrane of muscle cells, so that the muscle stripes disappear, can not hydrolyze connective tissue fibers.

When tenderizing, the protease is first formulated into an aqueous solution, and after being slaughtered and exsanguinated, the enzyme is injected into the animal body with a pressure syringe, or the enzyme is injected into the blood system before the slaughter, and the meat piece can also be immersed in the solution to achieve the purpose of tenderization.

In addition, there is a pre-maturity tenderization method. Protease preparations were injected 10-30 min before slaughter and the dosage was 2%-5% of body weight. Injecting papain into venous blood in an oxidized state avoids animal stress. If not slaughtered by the kidneys. After the slaughter, under the action of a reducing substance, the enzyme is changed from an oxidized state to an active reduced papain enzyme, and the tissue is tenderized.

2.2 Polyphosphate Tenderization

The use of polyphosphates in the processing of Western-style ham and enema has made the meat delicate, good in taste, and has improved sliceability and product yield. Polyphosphates include pyrophosphate, metaphosphoric acid, and tripolyphosphate. The tenderization method is to use polyphosphate as a pickling liquid for pickling or infusion into meat, and then tumbling. The general addition amount is 0.125% to 0.375% and does not exceed 0.5%. Its mechanism of action: to increase the pH of meat; to chelate metal ions to increase the electrostatic repulsion of proteins; to increase the solubility of myosin; to dissociate actomyosin and increase the number of salt-soluble proteins [1.8].

2.3 Calcium salt injection tenderization method

Experiments have shown that poultry meat with strong muscle toughness and poor tenderness is injected with a concentration of 0.15 mol of CaCl2 solution immediately after slaughter. After a day and night, the shear stress value is significantly higher than the control value (injected equal amount of KCl). Reduced tenderness has been significantly improved, providing a new way for the tenderization of meat. The mechanism may be: high concentrations of Ca2 infiltration of muscle cells, activation of CANP enzyme and alkaline phosphatase, promote glycolysis, accelerate lysosomal rupture, tissue protein release, together promote the increase of tenderness [2.5].

2.4 Insulin, epinephrine and other substances tenderizing animal before slaughter

Animals are injected with insulin, epinephrine, and other substances before slaughter to speed up the metabolism of sugar in the animal's living state and release it from the blood when discharged from the urine or slaughtered. After slaughter, the meat glycogen and lactic acid levels are low, and the pH value is relatively high. At the same time, a relatively significant increase in myosin has occurred, and thus the water-holding capacity of muscle protein is also increased [5].

In short, there are many methods for tenderizing meat, and each has its own strengths. The use of them in the processing of meat is more effective.

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